- Change Hope and the Bomb by David E Lilienthal - kysucihequku.ga
- System Requirements
- The decision to use the atomic bomb
Dozens of atomic survivors and activists protested in Nagasaki this week as a US nuclear-powered submarine arrived in Japan, just days after it emerged another sub may have suffered a small radiation leak earlier this year. Because of people like you, another world is possible. There are many battles to be won, but we will battle them together—all of us.
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It doesn't work that way. We need you. If you can help today—because every gift of every size matters—please do. The book description for "Change, Hope and the Bomb" is currently unavailable. Table of Contents. Cover Download Save. Title Page, Copyright Download Save. Author's Note pp. Contents p. A Personal Foreword pp. The Imperatives of Change pp. Offshore, Japanese kamikaze planes inflicted severe losses on the American fleet. After nearly 12 weeks of fighting, the United States secured the island on June 21 at a cost of nearly 50, American casualties.
Japanese casualties were staggering, with approximately 90, defending troops and at least , civilians killed.
Change Hope and the Bomb by David E Lilienthal - kysucihequku.ga
The Americans considered Okinawa a dress rehearsal for the invasion of the Japanese home islands, for which the United States was finalizing a two-stage plan. The first phase, code-named Olympic , was scheduled for late October , with a landing on Kyushu, defended by an estimated , Japanese troops backed by at least 1, kamikaze planes. Olympic entailed the use of nearly , American assault troops and an enormous naval fleet. The scale of the operation was to be similar to that of the Normandy invasion in France in June , which involved , Allied troops in the first 24 hours and approximately , others by the end of the first week of July.
Estimates of casualties from an invasion of Japan varied, but nearly everyone involved in the planning assumed that they would be substantial; mid-range estimates projected , American casualties, with 40, deaths. The second phase of the plan, code-named Coronet, envisioned a landing near Tokyo on the home island of Honshu in the spring of and a Japanese surrender sometime before the end of the year.
The same mid-range estimate that predicted , casualties for Olympic projected 90, for Coronet. If both invasions were necessary, by the most conservative estimates the United States would suffer , killed, wounded, or missing, as compared to a Pacific War total that by mid-June was approaching , Thus, the best estimates available to Truman predicted that the war would continue for a year or longer and that casualties would increase by 60 to percent or more.
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But would Japan have surrendered without either invasion? By mid, an American naval blockade had effectively cut off the home islands from the rest of the world. Moreover, regular incendiary bombing raids were destroying huge portions of one city after another, food and fuel were in short supply, and millions of civilians were homeless. General Curtis LeMay , the commander of American air forces in the Pacific, estimated that by the end of September he would have destroyed every target in Japan worth hitting.
The decision to use the atomic bomb
The argument that Japan would have collapsed by early fall is speculative but powerful. Nevertheless, all the evidence available to Washington indicated that Japan planned to fight to the end. Throughout July, intelligence reports claimed that troop strength on Kyushu was steadily escalating. Moreover, American leaders learned that Japan was seeking to open talks with the Soviet Union in the hopes of making a deal that would forestall Soviet entry into the Pacific war.
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In the absence of formal negotiations for a Japanese surrender, the two sides communicated with each other tentatively and indirectly, and both were constrained by internal sentiment that discouraged compromise. In Japan no military official counseled surrender, and civilian leaders who knew that the war was lost dared not speak their thoughts openly. Vague contacts initiated by junior-level Japanese diplomats in Sweden and Switzerland quickly turned to nothing for lack of high-level guidance.
The Japanese initiative to the Soviet Union also produced no results because Tokyo advanced no firm concessions. Japan faced inevitable defeat, but the concept of surrender carried a stigma of dishonour too great to contemplate. In the United States, conversely, the sure prospect of total victory made it close to impossible for Truman to abandon the goal of unconditional surrender. The most tangled problem in this conflict of national perspectives was the future of the Japanese emperor, Hirohito.