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In FOG, the parameter of interest is the angle direction obtained by applying a suitable integration procedure to the rotation rate recorded using the Sagnac effect. If a commercial FOG system is used for the construction of a rotational seismometer, the rotation rate is a suitable time derivative of the output signal, which introduces additional errors. Moreover, FOSREM uses a specific averaging method for initial data recording, for the elimination of drift phenomena [ 97 , ].

The connection provides data transmission and power supply over a single standard STP cable within a distance of m. The four multi-sensor systems can operate in a single network, transferring data to a central cloud-based system via the internet. These aspects, combined with the remote control of the electronic module possible via the internet [ 93 ] mean that the FOSREMs are portable and autonomous devices.

A typical shaking table 2. This table allows the generation of horizontal shaking which is a realistic simulation of that occurring during earthquakes. The platform of the seismic table was controlled by introducing a normalised record of accelerations. In order to carry out the test, based on this digitised data, the two FOSREMs were mounted on the beam together with two rotational sensors of type Horizon HZ parameters as listed in Table 2 for HZ, without the clip level limited to 1.

The test used a sinusoidal excitation Figure 12 a , a sweep sine excitation in the frequency band 0. Data obtained by various devices for a sine excitation; b sweep sine from 0. The presented data also clearly show that the commercially available single-axis rotational sensor HORIZON has lower sensitivity than the FOSREMs, which is reflected in the more illegible trace of the recorded signal, especially for lower values of signal amplitude.

In addition, the location of this sensor close to the linear bearing influenced an observed additional noise connected with the operation of the bearing. Moreover, for a sweep sine excitation, the nonlinear characteristics of the rotation rate induced in the set-up were observed. This is connected with the resonance characteristics of the beam with the mounted seismometers, with a natural frequency of about 7. It can be concluded that the parameters presented for FOSREM-BB meet all the requirements for a rotational motion sensor for both seismological and engineering applications; thus, this sensor is the most promising for rotational seismology applications.

The main objective of this paper was to review the existing solutions in terms of rotational seismometers from a practical point of view. This approach assumes unique requirements for rotational motion sensors for seismological and engineering applications. In this paper, three tables are presented which give the main parameters of the existing devices. These should be treated as initial points for future discussion, since common parameters for all the types of rotational seismometers examined here do not yet exist. This is likely to present a serious difficulty in the future development of these devices.

We consider here the need for a new approach to the definition of parameters as well as a standard methodology for their investigation, since rotational seismometers have a completely different principle of operation from classic seismometers.

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The review presented here clearly shows that devices which use mass inertia as their main physical principle of operation are likely to be limited in their future utility due to their limited sensitivity, dynamic range and operational band, and this is mainly related to their nonlinear frequency characteristics.

Arising from the above fundamental constraint, are devices which use light for their operation. The von Laue-Sagnac effect is currently a useful basis as a physical principle for construction of the rotational seismometer, as one can see from the parameters presented by existing devices. The main advantage of this type of sensor is its complete insensitivity to linear motion and its direct measurement of rotational speed. The development of the optical gyroscope nearly half a century ago offers an excellent technological and technical solution for the construction of an optical rotational seismometer.

Despite the incredible sensitivity of ring-laser rotational seismometers, their dimensions, power consumption, and environment instability mean that such devices are best suited for stationary research into fundamental geophysical phenomena. The review presented here shows that fibre-optic rotational seismometers are the most attractive option, since their parameters can meet all the requirements of the various areas of interest within rotational seismology. Unfortunately, as can be observed from their limited applications, the direct application of the commercially available FOGs does not fulfil these requirements, since FOGs are optimised for monitoring angle changes rather than rotation rate.

FOSREM, presented in this paper, fulfils all the technical requirements for rotational motion detection, in both seismological observatories and in engineering constructions. It is a remotely controlled sensor which is portable and works autonomously. Additionally, the use of cloud system by FOSREM allows the integration of dozen of sensors in a worldwide network, each transferring data to the central cloud-based system. The data can be viewed and analysed from anywhere in the world via the internet.

The authors believe that the further application of FOSREM in the investigation of rotational seismology effects will contribute to the provision of interesting and useful data. All authors contributed extensively to the work presented in this article. Leszek R. Jaroszewicz designed and implemented the studies.

Moreover Leszek R.

Jaroszewicz was the major contributor to the preparation of the article and oversaw the topics included in it. Anna Kurzych also participated in the writing of the article and producing the figures. Jerzy K. Zbigniew Zembaty took part in planning the modification of the seismic table as well as in the data analysis.

Bartosz Sakowicz developed the optimisation algorithm for the anomaly detection in the seismograph. Robert Jankowski supervised the research at the Gdansk University of Technology, Poland and prepared the seismic table simulation. All authors discussed the obtained data and commented on the article at all stages. The authors declare no conflict of interest. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; or in the decision to publish the results.

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Sensors Basel v. Sensors Basel. Published online Dec Find articles by Leszek R. Find articles by Anna Kurzych. Find articles by Zbigniew Krajewski. Kowalski 2 m-Soft Ltd. Find articles by Piotr Bobra. Find articles by Zbigniew Zembaty. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Oct 9; Accepted Dec 7. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Starting with descriptions of rotational seismology, areas of interest and historical field measurements, the fundamental requirements for rotational seismometers for seismological and engineering application are formulated. Keywords: fibre-optic interferometric sensor, rotational seismometer, seismological investigation, strong motion seismology, earthquakes, shaking table. Introduction Recently, there has been increasing interest in rotational ground motion measurements. Fundamental Requirements for Rotational Seismometers Depending on Area of Interest Traditionally, ground motion measurements in seismology are carried out along one vertical and two perpendicular horizontal axes.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Sketch showing translational and rotational directions on the ground surface. Rotational Seismometers for Indirect Measurement of Rotation This type of rotational seismometer uses a pair of standard seismic sensors pendulums or geophones oriented parallel to a chosen axis for instance the x axis and rigidly mounted at a distance l along the perpendicular axis, shown as the y axis in Figure 2.

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Figure 2. Figure 3. Table 1 Overview of rotational seismometers using indirect measurement only the most important parameters are listed. Figure 4. Rotational Seismometers for Direct Measurement of Rotation In general, there are three different technologies for constructing this type of rotational seismometer: mechanical, electrochemical and optical. Figure 5. Table 2 Overview of rotational seismometers using direct measurement only the most important parameters are listed.

Rotational Seismometers Using Electrochemical Sensor Technology These electrochemical devices use a fluid as an inertial mass; the motion of the fluid is detected using multilayer platinum electrodes with a spacing of a few tenths of millimetre according to the scheme shown in Figure 6 a [ 40 ]. Figure 6. Rotational Seismometers Using Optical Sensor Technology The optical rotational seismometer uses an optical gyro configuration, which operates based on the Sagnac effect more precisely, the von Laue-Sagnac effect [ 75 ].

Figure 7. Figure 8. Table 3 Overview of optical rotational seismometers with RLG and FOG configurations only the most important parameters have been listed. Range dB No data Freq. Band Hz 0. W high 2. Figure 9. Figure Conclusions The main objective of this paper was to review the existing solutions in terms of rotational seismometers from a practical point of view. Author Contributions All authors contributed extensively to the work presented in this article. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Lee W. Anderson J.

Strong-motion seismology. In: Lee W. Academic Press; Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Chapter Trifunac M. Review: Rotations in Structural Response. Mustafa A. InTech; Rijeka, Croatia: Teisseyre R.

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Springer; Heidelberg, Germany: Havskov J. Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology. Springer; Cham, Switzerland: McGuire R. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis: Early history. Carey S. Earth expansion and the null Universe. In: Carey S. Expanding Earth Symposium, Sydney, University of Tasmania; Hobart, Australia: Detection of gravitational waves.

Lantz B. Tutorial on earthquake rotational effects: Historical examples. Development of earthquake rotational effect study. In: Teisseyre R. Chapter 1. Igel H. Preface to the special issue on advances in rotational seismology: Instrumentation, theory, observations and engineering. Mallet R. Seismic rotation waves: Basic elements of the theory and recordings. Majewski E. Spinors and twistors in the description of rotational seismic waves and spin and twist solitons. Merkel A. Experimental evidence of rotational elastic waves in granular photonic crystals.

Wang H. Source and basin effects on rotational ground motions: Comparison with translations. Newmark N. Fundamentals of Earthquake Engineering. Zembaty Z. Tutorial on surface rotations from the wave passage effects—Stochastic approach. Effects of torsional and rocking excitations on the response of structures.

Kalakan E. Coupled tilt and translational ground motion response spectra. Galitzin B. Lectures on Seismometry. Russian Academy of Sciences; St. Petersburg, Russia: In Russian [ Google Scholar ].

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Kharin D. VBPP seismometer for separate registration of translational motion and rotations. Droste Z. Rotational and displacemental components of ground motion as deduced from data of the azimuth system of seismographs. Farrell W. A gyroscope seismometer: Measurements during the Borrego earthquake. Graizer V. Inertial seismometry methods. USSR Acad. Solid Earth. Nigbor R. Six-degree-of-freedom ground motion measurement. A note on surface strains associated with incident body waves. A note on rotational components of earthquake motions on ground surface for incident body waves.

Soil Dyn. Olivera C. Rotational components of surface strong ground motion. Spudich P. Transient stress at Parkfield, California produced by the M 7. Bodin P. Dynamic deformations of shallow sediments in the Valley of Mexico, part 1: Three dimensional strains and rotations recorded on a seismic array. Huang B. Ground rotational motions of the Chi-Chi, Taiwan earthquake as inferred from dense array observations. Suryanto W. First comparison of array-derived rotational ground motions with direct ring laser measurements.

Wassermann J. Performance test of a commercial rotational motions sensor. Bernauer F. Rotational sensors—A comparison of different sensor types. Takeo M.

Rotational Motions Excited by Earthquakes |

Rotation motion observed during an earthquake swarm in April, at offshore Ito, Japan. Moriya T. Design of rotation seismometer and non-linear behaviour of rotation components of earthquakes. Rotational ground motion records from induced seismic events. Evans J. Rotational seismology and engineering—Online proceedings for the first international workshop. US Geol. Open-File Rep. A glossary of rotational seismology. Micro-inertia continuum: Rotations and semi-waves. Acta Geophys. Time-domain filtering of seismic rotation waves.

Jaroszewicz L. Recording of seismic rotation waves: Reliability analysis. Solarz L. Analysis of seismic rotations detected by two antiparallel seismometers: Spine function approximation of rotation and displacement velocities. Continuum with defect and self-rotation fields. Continuum with self-rotation nuclei: Evolution of defect fields and equation of motion.

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Wiszniowski J. Rotation and twist motion recording—couple pendulum and rigid seismometer system. Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland. Personal communication. Poland; The main parameters of the Two Antiparallel Pendulum Seismometers. CZ B6. New portable sensor system for rotational seismic motion measurements.

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Rotaphone, a mechanical seismic sensor system for field rotation rate measurements and its in situ calibration. Rotaphone, a new self-calibrated six-degree-of-freedom seismic sensor. Rotaphone, a self-calibrated six-degree-of-freedom seismic sensor and its strong-motion records.

Habilitation Thesis. Six-degree-of-freedom near-source seismic motions II: Examples of real seismogram analysis and S-wave velocity retrieval. Rotational Seismometers R-2, R3. Abramovich J. Electrochemical transducer and a method for fabricating the same. Electrochemical Sensors Transducer. US B2. The rotation and twist effects are investigated and described, and their consequences for designing tall buildings and other important structures are presented. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required.

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