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Fifth , the cerebrocerebellar approach to the origin and nature of culture described herein offers a brain-based explanation of how excessive television viewing a profound cultural shift which has occurred Giedd, [ 46 ]; Rideout, Foehr and Roberts [ 47 ] especially among children, might disrupt traditional, pre-television, two-sided socialization which Lillard et al.

It is suggested that this results in the learning of cerebellar internal models for a one-sided socialization that is similar in effect to that of socially abused children raised in socially austere orphanages non-interactive caretakers, little play found by Bauer et al. In summary it is concluded that culture is a collaborative outcome of the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum.

It is hypothesized that the cerebellum, through the evolutionary differentiation of its dentate nucleus toward cognitive functions including working memory and language [ 9 , 10 , 30 , 36 ], plays the more prominent role in the learning, maintenance, and advance of culture. Culture is defined [here] as the shared patterns of behaviors and interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understandings that are learned through a process of socialization [italics added]. These shared patterns identify the members of a culture group while also distinguishing those of another group.

Music training, by the very nature of its cognitive, affective and manual production requirements, draws heavily on the components and capacities of working memory. In music training for the piano, for example, these working memory tasks include reading the musical notation system and sustaining the highly attentive repetitious practice required to learn the transfer of this notation into sequences of bimanual production, the latter of which depends on multisensory feedback.

The level of social austerity in orphanage institutions varies greatly. However, the institutions in these studies were generally characterized by unfavorable child-to-caregiver ratios, regimented daily living routines, and diminished sensory, cognitive, and language stimulation, and diminished social responsiveness of caregivers. This includes imaginary scenarios as goals for example, Yomogida et al.

Therefore, a prospective goal in working memory may be to achieve pure fantasy in science fiction novels, television shows or cartoons where common sense and the laws of physics are humorously or interestingly violated. Liao et al. Baddeley [ 62 ] suggested a similar evolutionary scenario for working memory: Working memory stands at the crossroads between memory, attention, and perception. In the case of the slave systems, the phonological loop, for example, probably represents an evolution of the basic speech perception and production systems to the point at which they can be used for active memory.

Second, these new vocal differentiations in evolving visual-spatial working memory served as an increasingly larger system of associative internal and social vocal tags Fuster [ 64 ], pp. Vandervert L. How music training enhances working memory: a cerebrocerebellar blending mechanism that can lead equally to scientific discovery and therapeutic efficacy in neurological disorders. Cerebellum Ataxias. Working memory in child prodigies: A 10, year-old story, one million years in the making. In McPherson G, Child prodigies in music. Oxford University Press; in press-a.

Attention coordination and anticipatory control. In: Schmahmann J, editor. The cerebellum and cognition. New York: Academic; Leggio M, Molinari M. Cerebellar sequencing: a trick for predicting the future. Reorganization of brain activity for multiple internal models after short but intensive training. Late Pleistocene demography and the appearance of modern human behavior. Ito M. Cerebellar microcomplexes.

In: Schmahmann JD, editor. The cerebellum: brain for an implicit self. Does the cerebellum contribute to mental skills? Behav Neurosci. Reappraising the cerebellum: What does the hindbrain contribute to the forebrain? The evolution of language: the cerebro-cerebellar blending of visual-spatial working memory with vocalizations. J Mind Behav. Doya K. What are the computations of the cerebellum, the basal ganglia, and the cerebral cortex? Neural Netw. Imamizu H, Kawato M. Brain mechanisms for predictive control by switching internal models: implications for higher-order cognitive functions.

Psychol Res. Generalized role for the cerebellum in encoding internal models: evidence from semantic processing. J Neurosci. A unifying computational framework for motor control and social interaction. Biol Sci.

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Functional connectivity between the cerebrum and cerebellum in social cognition: A multi-study analysis. The cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Schmahmann JD. Disorders of the cerebellum: ataxia, dysmetria of thought, and the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. Schmahmann, J. Dysmetria of thought: A unifying hypothesis for cerebellar role in sensorimotor function, cognition and emotion. Holloway R. Culture, symbols, and human brain evolution: a synthesis. Dialect Anthropol.

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Phil Trans R Soc B. Social learning and evolution: the cultural intelligence hypothesis. Stout D, Chaminade T. Stone tools, language and the brain in human evolution. Whiten A, van Schaik CP. The Nature of Culture: an eight-grade model for the evolution and expansion of cultural capacities in hominins and other animals. J Anthro Sci.

Gilchrist A, Cowan N. Conscious and unconscious aspects of working memory. In: Winkler I, Czigler I, editors. Unconscious memory representations in perception Volume Amsterdam: John Benjamins; Cerebellum and cognition: Evidence for the encoding of higher order rules. Cereb Cortex. Motor system contributions to verbal and non-verbal working memory. Front Hum Neurosci.

The contributions of cerebrocerebellar circuitry to executive verbal working memory. Marvel C, Desmond J. From storage to manipulation: How the neural correlates of verbal working memory reflect varying demands on inner speech. Brain Lang. Schmahmann JD, editor. Functional topography of the cerebellum for motor and cognitive tasks: An fMRI study. Cerebellum and nonmotor function. Ann Rev Neurosci. How many neurons do you have? Some dogmas of quantitative neuroscience under revision.

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Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. Trends Cogn Sci. How working memory and the cognitive functions of the cerebellum collaborate to produce creativity and innovation. Creativity Res J. Developing Relationships References 8.

The Time Machine References 9. Sing a New Song References I Dream of Glia References Gliadegenerative Disease References The Seething Breeding Glioma References The adolescent genome genetic imperfection unselfish genes how genes work and why they come in different flavors three reasons why genes might make us sick The Cerebellum: Brain for an Implicit Self Copyright Page Dedication Page Contents Preface Acknowledgments About the Author 1.

Introduction Decomposition and Reconstruction Neurons and Synapses Neural Networks Reflexes and Voluntary Movements Integration of reflexes Motor Actions Thought as a Control Mechanism Beyond Movements Scope of This Monograph Summary 2. Traditional Views of the Cerebellum Morphological Map Motor Skills Microscopic Features Summary 3.

The Cerebellum as a Neuronal Machine The s The Marr-Albus Model Long-Term Depression Adaptive Control Cerebellar Internal Models Cognitive Functions of the Cerebellum Summary 4. Input and Output Pathways in the Cerebellar Cortex Mossy Fibers Granule Cells Unipolar Brush Cells Purkinje Cells Climbing Fibers Beaded Fibers Summary 5. Basket Cells and Stellate Cells Golgi Cells Lugaro Cells Small Inhibitory Neurons in the Granular Layer Bergmann Glia Summary 6.

Pre- and Post-Cerebellar Cortex Neurons Cells of Origin of Mossy Fibers Inferior Olive and Preolivary Nuclei Cells of Origin of Beaded Fiber Cerebellar Nuclear Neurons Summary 7. Properties of Conjunctive LTD Major Signal Transduction Pathways Toru Itakura. The Neurology of Olfaction. Christopher H.

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Free Kindle Textbook: The Cerebellum: Brain for an Implicit Self (FT Press Science)

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