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Fifth , the cerebrocerebellar approach to the origin and nature of culture described herein offers a brain-based explanation of how excessive television viewing a profound cultural shift which has occurred Giedd, [ 46 ]; Rideout, Foehr and Roberts [ 47 ] especially among children, might disrupt traditional, pre-television, two-sided socialization which Lillard et al.
It is suggested that this results in the learning of cerebellar internal models for a one-sided socialization that is similar in effect to that of socially abused children raised in socially austere orphanages non-interactive caretakers, little play found by Bauer et al. In summary it is concluded that culture is a collaborative outcome of the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum.
It is hypothesized that the cerebellum, through the evolutionary differentiation of its dentate nucleus toward cognitive functions including working memory and language [ 9 , 10 , 30 , 36 ], plays the more prominent role in the learning, maintenance, and advance of culture. Culture is defined [here] as the shared patterns of behaviors and interactions, cognitive constructs, and affective understandings that are learned through a process of socialization [italics added]. These shared patterns identify the members of a culture group while also distinguishing those of another group.
Music training, by the very nature of its cognitive, affective and manual production requirements, draws heavily on the components and capacities of working memory. In music training for the piano, for example, these working memory tasks include reading the musical notation system and sustaining the highly attentive repetitious practice required to learn the transfer of this notation into sequences of bimanual production, the latter of which depends on multisensory feedback.
The level of social austerity in orphanage institutions varies greatly. However, the institutions in these studies were generally characterized by unfavorable child-to-caregiver ratios, regimented daily living routines, and diminished sensory, cognitive, and language stimulation, and diminished social responsiveness of caregivers. This includes imaginary scenarios as goals for example, Yomogida et al.
Therefore, a prospective goal in working memory may be to achieve pure fantasy in science fiction novels, television shows or cartoons where common sense and the laws of physics are humorously or interestingly violated. Liao et al. Baddeley [ 62 ] suggested a similar evolutionary scenario for working memory: Working memory stands at the crossroads between memory, attention, and perception. In the case of the slave systems, the phonological loop, for example, probably represents an evolution of the basic speech perception and production systems to the point at which they can be used for active memory.
Second, these new vocal differentiations in evolving visual-spatial working memory served as an increasingly larger system of associative internal and social vocal tags Fuster [ 64 ], pp. Vandervert L. How music training enhances working memory: a cerebrocerebellar blending mechanism that can lead equally to scientific discovery and therapeutic efficacy in neurological disorders. Cerebellum Ataxias. Working memory in child prodigies: A 10, year-old story, one million years in the making. In McPherson G, Child prodigies in music. Oxford University Press; in press-a.
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The contributions of cerebrocerebellar circuitry to executive verbal working memory. Marvel C, Desmond J. From storage to manipulation: How the neural correlates of verbal working memory reflect varying demands on inner speech. Brain Lang. Schmahmann JD, editor. Functional topography of the cerebellum for motor and cognitive tasks: An fMRI study. Cerebellum and nonmotor function. Ann Rev Neurosci. How many neurons do you have? Some dogmas of quantitative neuroscience under revision.
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Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia. Trends Cogn Sci. How working memory and the cognitive functions of the cerebellum collaborate to produce creativity and innovation. Creativity Res J. Developing Relationships References 8.
The Time Machine References 9. Sing a New Song References I Dream of Glia References Gliadegenerative Disease References The Seething Breeding Glioma References The adolescent genome genetic imperfection unselfish genes how genes work and why they come in different flavors three reasons why genes might make us sick The Cerebellum: Brain for an Implicit Self Copyright Page Dedication Page Contents Preface Acknowledgments About the Author 1.
Introduction Decomposition and Reconstruction Neurons and Synapses Neural Networks Reflexes and Voluntary Movements Integration of reflexes Motor Actions Thought as a Control Mechanism Beyond Movements Scope of This Monograph Summary 2. Traditional Views of the Cerebellum Morphological Map Motor Skills Microscopic Features Summary 3.
The Cerebellum as a Neuronal Machine The s The Marr-Albus Model Long-Term Depression Adaptive Control Cerebellar Internal Models Cognitive Functions of the Cerebellum Summary 4. Input and Output Pathways in the Cerebellar Cortex Mossy Fibers Granule Cells Unipolar Brush Cells Purkinje Cells Climbing Fibers Beaded Fibers Summary 5. Basket Cells and Stellate Cells Golgi Cells Lugaro Cells Small Inhibitory Neurons in the Granular Layer Bergmann Glia Summary 6.
Pre- and Post-Cerebellar Cortex Neurons Cells of Origin of Mossy Fibers Inferior Olive and Preolivary Nuclei Cells of Origin of Beaded Fiber Cerebellar Nuclear Neurons Summary 7. Properties of Conjunctive LTD Major Signal Transduction Pathways Toru Itakura. The Neurology of Olfaction. Christopher H.
Deep Brain Stimulation. Damiaan Denys. Vestibular Processing Dysfunction in Children. Kenneth J Ottenbacher. Management of Smell and Taste Disorders. Antje Welge-Luessen. Windows to the Brain. Robin A. The Parietal Lobe. Giuseppe Vallar. Clinical Neurophysiology in Disorders of Consciousness. Andrea O. Movement Disorder Surgery.
Roy AE Bakay. Mind in the Balance. Alan Wallace. Neuroimaging and Neurophysiology in Psychiatry. David Linden. Jamie Talan. Neurodegenerative Disorders.
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Orla Hardiman. Introduction to Modern Sleep Technology. Rayleigh Ping-Ying Chiang. Electromyography in CNS Disorders. Bhagwan T. Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging. Roberto Cabeza. Teofilo Lee-Chiong. White Matter Dementia. Christopher M. The Physiology of Synapses.
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Free Kindle Textbook: The Cerebellum: Brain for an Implicit Self (FT Press Science)
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